Search Engines, HTML Validation, & Link Checkers

The Science Page uses and recommends the following online HTML and CSS Validators and Link Checkers:

Search Engines

  • Ask - Search engine owned by InterActive Corp. and promoted across their suite of web properties. To a large degree they syndicate results and ads from Google.
  • Baidu - A leading Chinese search engine founded on January 1, 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu.
  • Bing - the default search in Windows. Has around 10% market share in the US.
  • Cliqz - a privacy-focused search engine and web browser
  • DuckDuckGo - privacy focused search engine founded by Gabriel Weinberg on February 29, 2008
  • Ecosia - search engine which uses profits from web search to plant millions of trees. They syndicate their core organic search results from Microsoft's Bing.
  • Gigablast - independent search engine created by Matt Wells in 2000
  • Google - the search engine with the largest reach. Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded the company on September 4, 1998. They are the default search engine in Chrome web browsers and most web browsers on Android phones. In addition they pay Apple to be the default search provider in Safari and Mozilla to be the default search provider in Firefox.
  • Kid's Search - safe search service for children
  • Mojeek - search engine founded in 2009 by Marc Smith.
  • Qwant - French search engine which does not track users and is privacy oriented
  • - privacy-focused search engine which syndicates search results and ads from Google.
  • Wilby - search engine which shows web pages from specialty niche indy sites
  • Yandex - English-language version of a search engine which is popular in Russia
  • Yahoo Search - largely syndicates Bing search results while featuring some vertical Yahoo properties like Yahoo News in the result set.
  • Internet Archive - if you find broken links you can see what those pages looked like in the past.

How do Search Engines Work?

What are People Searching for?

  • Google Trends - shows historical search volume trends for keyword terms or topics with regional filters available
  • Google Keyword Tool - gives 12 months of historical data, though requires a paid advertising account
  • Bing Keyword Resear Tool
  • Dogpile Search Spy - shows real time search queries
  • Wordtracker - keyword research tool available by subscription
  • Bings Ads Intelligence - a Microsoft Excel plugin offering access to Microsoft's search data, requires a Bing Ads account which takes $5 to activate.
  • Various search marketing companies like Ahrefs, Wordtracker, WordStream, SEMRush, SEObook, and Moz also offer commercial keyword research tools.

Web Directories

These offer manually created and curated lists of websites by topical category.

  • BOTW - one of the oldest web directories
  • Curlie - directory founded and managed by former DMOZ editors
  • Gimpsy - directory revolving around sites categorized by verbs
  • GoGuides - directory created by former members of the directory
  • Illumirate - directory founded in 2003 which was spun off of the former member-ran Hotrate directory
  • JoeAnt - directory founded in May, 2001 by former directory editors
  • ODP - static copy of Open Directory Project built from DMOZ.
  • - the original WWW Virtual Library created by Tim Berners-Lee
  • Wikipedia - similar to DMOZ/ODP in structure, but hosts articles instead of just categorized link lists

More Search Engines at:


Validation Service from W3C



Xenu Link Checker